Sub-goal 3: Equal education
Today, there are no formal differences between women and men when it comes to access to education. Instead, it is important to pay attention to the different conditions and opportunities for girls and boys, women and men when it comes to education.
Sub-goal three is about women and men having the same opportunities and conditions when it comes to education, study choices and personal development.
School is an important arena for counteracting traditional gender patterns and laying the foundation for an equal society. A gender equal education covers the entire formal education system, from pre-school to university and college, adult education and polytechnics. Education outside of the formal education system is also covered, such as folk high schools and the study associations' educational activities.
What does gender equality look like in education?
Women and men, girls and boys, study extensively in different types of educations, and few educations can be said to have an even gender distribution. Possible explanations for gender-segregated education can be found on a societal, organisational and individual level. Girls 'and boys' early educational choices affect how they later choose a profession and thus also future opportunities for livelihood, independence and influence in society.
In upper secondary school, a more even gender distribution is noticeable in the pre-university programs than in the vocational programs. Parents' level of education and professional background come into play when students choose programs. Children of low-educated parents more often apply for vocational programs that are clearly dominated by women or men, such as health and care or technology and construction.
Additional factors that influence young people's educational choices are upbringing environment and family relationships, interests and abilities, social interaction, labor market factors, information and study and career guidance. In addition, many of these factors covariate.
Girls perform better as a group in school than boys, but at the same time girls feel higher demands in school, are more stressed and feel worse mentally. Children and young people are exposed, and at risk at being exposed, to sexual harassment at school and on social media. It is important that adults who meet children and young people have knowledge about how they can respond to those who have been exposed. Preschool, school and student health have a great responsibility to work early against gender stereotypical norms and for gender equality. In order to make students aware of different power structures in society, and to strengthen their ability to make conscious and independent choices, the knowledge area Sexuality, consent and relationships is inscribed in the curriculum from 2022.
Women are in the majority among students in higher education, but in the minority in higher positions at universities. Today, only three out of ten professors are women. Gender harassment is a common form of vulnerability in academia and a serious threat to individuals' health, study and work environment. All in all, this means that women's and men's conditions and conditions look different when it comes to higher studies, careers and opportunities for research.
A strategic measure to counteract unequal conditions in colleges and universities is the government assignment JiHU, Gender Equality Integration in Colleges and Universities. This means that gender equality work must be carried out systematically throughout the regular operations and at all decision levels.
What are the challenges for a gender-equal education?
Despite extensive knowledge of the structures and processes that shape the conditions for education, the Swedish Gender Equality Agency sees that gender inequality problems and areas of development remain in society. Therefore, more work is needed to
• counteract gender differences in educational choices and break the gender-segregated education
• improve study results and reduce gender differences in study results and the transition to higher education
• improve students' mental health
• prevent and combat sexual harassment and improve the study and work environment for students and staff.
Publication date: 7 January 2022
Last updated: 8 January 2022